Common themes in ecosystem health research include deforestation, monoculture crops, habitat loss, and overfishing.
Research into deforestation includes ways to mitigate soil erosion, restore lost habitat, and find alternative means of acquiring timber. This includes the planting of forest plantations (instead of harvesting from wild populations), replacement tree planting in previously deforested areas, and switching from "slash and burn" to "slash and char" techniques, which returns carbon to the soil and helps to prevent soil erosion.
It has long been known that monoculture crops are sensitive to disease and pests due to their uniform genetic makeup. Current research is looking at ways to combat these sensitivities through genetic manipulation, disease control, and drug manufacturing. As well, researchers are looking at ways to revive genetic diversity in crops through various planting methods (alternating rows, block planting, etc.).
Research into overfishing is underway through the collaboration of ecologists and fisheries management scientists. See the article on fisheries management for more information.