After taking the requisite introductory courses in biology, anatomy, physiology, and chemistry, students start to specialize in their field of choice such as cardiovascular surgery, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, otolaryngology, plastic surgery, or general surgery. Advanced studies in oncology, transplantation, trauma surgery, amputation, etc., are available to students who wish to pursue a particular specialty.
After the initial theory, students are introduced to actual surgical procedures and methodologies, using animal, computer, and human cadaver models. Techniques such as excision, suturing, ligation, and cautery are taught. Training in procedures specific to that specialty (eg. cardiovascular surgery, thoracic surgery, neurosurgery, etc.) follows.