Many graduates of astrophysics go on to work in academia, teaching physics, astronomy, engineering, and astrophysics at the post-secondary level, while doing research at the same time. The other major employer of astrophysicists is the government, where agencies such as the Department of National Defense, Natural Resources Canada, and the Canadian Space Agency will hire astrophysicists for various projects.
Outside academia, employment opportunities are limited for pure astrophysics work. Most graduates use their astrophysics degree to work in a related field such as physics or atmospheric sciences. Astrophysicists can work in observational astronomy as technical staff at observatories. They can also work in collaboration with engineers and computer scientists to design radio, millimetre, optical, and infrared telescopes
In the software sector, astrophysicists are hired for program development, game programming, and visualization technologies. In the energy sector, astrophysicists are developing fuel cell technology and developing techniques for fossil fuel exploration. In medicine, astrophysicists are hired to develop and improve new imaging technologies such as MRI and PET. In the financial world, astrophysicists are employed to model the stock market.
An astrophysics degree can also be used for further studies in physics, astronomy, meteorology, engineering, and oceanography.