Biologists have a wide array of employment options open to them, depending on their field of expertise. Biologists with a background in microbiology and cell biology can work in the health industry doing pure or applied research. They can work in microbiological labs doing diagnoses in human disease (see the article on medical laboratory science), doing pure research characterizing new microbes, or doing pathological studies. A biology degree can also be used for entry to medical school or veterinary science programs.
Biologists can also work in management and conservation. There they solve environmental problems and preserve the natural world. They can work as park rangers protecting provincial and national parks, help preserve natural resources, and educate the general public. They can work as zoo employees, animal control officers, wildlife rehabilitation officers, or in captive breeding programs. In addition, management and conservation biologists often work with members of the community such as landowners and special interest groups to develop and implement management plans.
Biologists can work in education, working at the secondary or post-secondary level teaching biology. They can also work in science museums, zoos, aquariums, parks, and nature centers where they design exhibits and educational programs, in addition to teaching special classes or leading tours and nature hikes.
Biologists can combine their biology degree with other fields to work in applied science such as biotechnology, forensic sciences (working with law enforcement agencies to discover and process evidence that can be used to solve crimes), politics and policy (creating new legislation on topics such as biomedical research and environmental protection), economics (working with organizations to study and address the economic impacts of biological issues such as species extinctions, forest protection, and environmental pollution), mathematics (modeling ecosystem processes and gene sequencing), and science writing.