Every subspecialty of biology has active research ongoing. Most contributions to biological research come from government, private business, and academia, with collaborations amongst all 3 being common.
Some notable advances in biological research include improvements in curing certain diseases (genetics, molecular biology), discovering new species in hostile environments (exobiology, microbiology), improving crop resistance to pests (crop science, parasitology), and advances in environmental monitoring (ecology, natural resources management).
"Microbial" research ranges from basic cell studies to genetic engineering. As new species are discovered, their cellular and genetic signatures are examined both to contribute to the overall knowledge of biodiversity, and to determine if any properties can be used for human purposes (eg. food source, new drugs, etc). See the articles on biotechnology, genetics, microbiology, and molecular biology for more information on current genetics research.
Biologists also do research in anatomy and physiology, where they learn about the internal workings of organisms and translate these findings for the human body. See the articles on anatomy and physiology for current research in these fields.
Biologists also do research into the biological aspects of ecology. This can range from studies of individuals to whole populations of a species, to the overall communities involved. See the articles on ecology and conservation biology for current research in these fields.