Mitigation is one area of research, where the construction of structures to prevent disasters is underway (eg. developing more effective levees, designing earthquake valves for properties using natural gas, seismic retrofits). As well, research into non-structural measures such as more effective legislation, land-use planning (eg the designation of nonessential land like parks to be used as flood zones), and insurance are also being investigated. As well, improvements in early warning technologies for hurricanes are always being re-evaluated.
Another area of research is casualty prediction, where numerical modeling and statistical analysis is being used to predict disaster losses in large urban centers, on coastlines, and in 3rd world countries.
The timely deployment of first responders is also being investigated. Research in traffic patterns, alternative routes, prioritizing of materials to be shipped, and their overall effectiveness is currently underway. This often takes place with urban planners, local government officials, and emergency responders such as firefighters and paramedics.